J. David Bleich, "Survey of Recent Halakhic Periodical Literature", Tradition 20 (1982), 358-367. - The author reviews halakhic opinions relevant to the sale of arms, Cholent, and the recitation of ve-ten tal u'matar by travellers. (S.M.P.)

Israel Ta-Shma, "Judeo-Christian Commerce on Christian Holy Days in Medieval Germany and Provence", Immanuel l2 (198l), 110-122. - The author shows that in areas of Moslem dominance, Jewish authorities allowed unrestricted trade because there were no items in commerce that might violate the Jewish laws against idolatry. In the same areas, commerce with Christians was prohibited. Jewish authorities in Christian Europe, for obvious reasons of economic necessity, did not accept this stricture. Where there were both large Moslem and Christian groups, as in Provence, the employment of a Moslem "middle man" allowed retention of the prohibition in its main features. (S.M.P.)

S. Warhaftig, "Restraint of Trade in Jewish Law" (Heb.), Proceedings of the Eighth World Congress of Jewish Studies, Division C (Jerusalem: World Union of Jewish Studies, 1982), 35-40.

Edward Zipperstein, Business Ethics in Jewish law, New York: Ktav Publishing House Inc., 1983, ISBN 0-88125-005-8 (Hard), 022-8 (pbk.), Pp. xvi, 180, Price: $15.00 (hard), $8.95 (pbk.). - This study, which relies heavily on secondary sources, is written by a Los Angeles public accountant, who brings to bear a combination of economic, legal and Hebraic training. He provides a sketch of Jewish economic history, and then deals, in a series of short chapters, with some well-known topics, such as methods of property acquisition, ona'ah, usury, dina demalkhuta, slavery and the position of the worker. The ethical outlook towards wealth and business practices is surveyed, through the Prophets, Proverbs and Rabbinic writings. There are also chapters on Herem Hayyishub, and some decisions from the responsa of Maharshal, and the book concludes with Appendices on the economic element in anti-semitism, and on the theory underlying it (Werner Sombart, and others). There is much of interest here for the lay reader. (B.S.J.)


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