J. de Vaulx, "Refuge (droit d'asile et villes de refuge dans l'Ancien Testament)", in Supplément au dictionnaire de la Bible vol.9 (Paris, 1979), 1480-1510. - This article is a very thorough treatment of the right of asylum of cities of refuge in the Old Testament and also contain useful bibliographical information. After an introduction dealing with the Hebrew vocabulary concerning refuge, the article contains three main sections, (1) the right of asylum in antiquity outside the Bible, (2) asylum and refuge in Israel, and (3) conclusions and synthesis. An appendix deals with the right of asylum in the post-biblical period up to the present day. (J. D.)

V. Kubác, "Blut in Gurtel und in Sandalen", VT 31 (1981), 225-226. - The force of David's deathbed sentence on Joab ordering Solomon to execute him for the murders of Abner and Amasa by which act in peacetime he had brought innocent bloodshed in war "Upon the girdle of his loins and the sandals of his feet" (I Kings. 2:5; cf. 2 Sam. 2:30; 20:9f) must be understood in the context of the ancient belief in the magical power of blood. Anat's bloodbath described in the Ugaritic Epic V AB/B (CTA 3 ii) illustrates this power of blood to revive and empower. Joab's similarly offensive magical act was punished accordingly. (K.W.W.)

J. Milgrom, "The Paradox of the Red Cow (Num. XIX)", VT 31 (1981), 62-72. - The writer claims that the key to the paradox of the Red Cow is that it is a hatat sacrifice or "purification offering" to remove contamination. The lustral ashes of the Red Cow are the only vestige of a pre-Israelite rite of exorcism for the corpse-contaminated. The demonic impurity of the corpse has been devitalized and the procedure for preparing the ashes has been restructured to conform to the hatat requirements and integrated into Israel's sacrificial system. The present form of ritual of the Red Cow (Num. 19) is later than the rituals for severe impurities of Lev. 12-15 which betray more primitive traces. (K.W.W.)

A. Rofé, "The History of the Cities of Refuge in Biblical Law", Beth Mikra 31 (1985/86), 110-33 (Hebrew); see OTA 10/1 (1987), no.194.

Ulrich Sick, Die Tötung eines Menschen und ihre Ahndung in den keilschriftlichen Rechtssammlungen under Berücksichtigung rechtsvergleichender Aspekte, Ostfildem: Copy Shop Kstl-Harmansa, 1984, 2 vols. (Inaugural-Dissertation). - This thesis is devoted primarily to homicide in the cuneiform laws, but with comparative reference to other ancient sources - Greek, Roman, Egyptian, Old German, and especially biblical. Separate treatment is accorded the various types of homicidal act and the range of legal consequences applied to them. A final major section considers the character and sources of the cuneiform legal collections. (B.S.J.)



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