D. Frimer, "The Role of the Lawyer in Jewish Law", Journal of Law and Religion 1 (1983), 297-305. - The American adversary legal system treats the clash of lawyers as vital to the discovery of the truth by a nonparticipant fact finder. The Jewish legal system, however, needs no lawyers; the judge is an active participant in the search for truth, aided in past times by students, and the direct confrontation of the parties is thought more productive of truth and less of litigation than the meddling of lawyers. Lawyers have gradually obtained a limited role in Jewish law, and in the Israeli Rabbinical Courts, but not as indispensable participants - and it is preferred that they neither advise clients on litigable matters nor counsel them on how to legally arrange their affairs for maximum advantage. (D.H.P.)



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