M. Benayahu, "A Ban by the Rabbis of Constantinople Regarding Interest Payment between Jews and Italy" (Heb.), Shenaton 8 (1981), 43-111. - On the basis of the text of this Ban drawn up by the Rabbis of Constantinople in 1564, the author draws a comprehensive picture of the usurious dealings between Jews in the Ancora area, which threatened the whole of Italian Jewry in the period of the edicts issued by Popes Paul IV and Pius V. According to Benayahu, this document is one of the most important sources for the history of the Jews in 16th century Italy. The article contains both the relevant texts and an analysis of the historical material. (Y.S.K.)

J. David Bleich, "Survey of Recent Halakhic Periodical Literature", Tradition 19/2 (l981), 149-162. - The author presents a detailed review of the heter iska in both commercial and non-commercial loans and then proceeds to examine the special problem of a mortgage loan in which the seller accepts a purchase mortgage representing all or part of the purchase price. This transaction does not lend itself to the usual heter iska. The author then suggests modifications of the document so that it will apply to such purchase mortgages, and he further appends a sample heter iska and leasehold agreement reflecting his suggested procedures. (S.M.P.)

J. Gross, "Inflation Shock: The Linkage of Liabilities in Israel" (Heb.), Hapraklit 33 (1980), 53-80. - In this extensive discussion of liability linkage in Israeli law, the author also adverts to the position in Jewish law in which money paid as a result of linking an obligation to the Index may constitute a form of usury and may therefore be prohibited. (Y.S.K.)

Jean Jofen, "The Jewish Law of Usury as Seen in Elizabethan Literature", The Jewish Law Annual VIII (1989), 147-157. - The article describes the inconsistencies in Shylock's bond in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice: Why did he lend Antonio the money for free, without a penny interest, and then demand a pound of flesh which would kill Antonio? Shylock's explanation that he was Antonio's friend can =not explain this inconsistency. Dr. Jofen found a document by the Christian historian Tovey Blossier which indicates that this was the way the Pope lent money - 3 months without interest and then he took a %, claiming that it was not interest but on a contingency from heaven, that the person could not pay back the loan. The Jewish money lenders of Italy charged only 15%, which is documented in the article. [Author]



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